Friday, June 30, 2017

Blender 3D - bpy and scripting - part 001.

The tutorial for today is bpy python module used by Blender 3D software for scripting.
The last Application Programming Interface (A.P.I.) for Blender 3D can be found here.
You need to take a look at the link to see the base of this python module.
The example I will start today is a python script that helps me to deal with Blender 3D.
First I put the script named into Blender 3D path: C:\Program Files\Blender Foundation\Blender\2.78\python\lib.
The reason is to be load by Blender 3D application.
Let's start with the script:
First, you need to import the Blender 3D python module named bpy.
This allows us to deal with Blender 3D using python and Application Programming Interface (A.P.I.).
The script is an example not a lib script for Blender 3D.
The goal of this script is to show how to deal with python scripting into Blender 3D.
If you want to make a lib for the Blender 3D then you need to read about Python’s standard library - here.
My script just creates materials. To do that I used functions to make materials - mat, set the material to the object - set_mat and the run function to see how is working.
Let's see the python script:
import bpy

def mat(name,df_col,df_sh,df_int,sp_col,sp_sh,sp_int,alp,amb):
    mat =
    mat.diffuse_color = df_col
    mat.diffuse_shader = df_sh
    mat.diffuse_intensity = df_int
    mat.specular_color = sp_col
    mat.specular_shader = sp_sh
    mat.specular_intensity = sp_int
    mat.alpha = alp
    mat.ambient = amb
    return mat

def set_mat(ob, mat):
    me =

def run(origin):
    # create two materials
    red = mat('Red', (1,0,0),'LAMBERT',1.0,(1,1,1),'COOKTORR',0.5, 1,1)
    blue = mat('Green', (0,1,0),'LAMBERT',1.0,(0,0.5,0.5),'COOKTORR',0.5, 1, 0.5)

    # create red cube
    set_mat(bpy.context.object, red)
    # create a green torus
    set_mat(bpy.context.object, blue)

if __name__ == "__main__":
To run this script put the script into the lib path of Blender 3D software.
Open the Blender 3D and go to the scripting area:

Now about the source code of this script.
As you know the Blender 3D interface let you add and change objects and materials.
Each material comes with a name, colors with a diffuse and specular property, alpha color, ambient color, etc. see the documentation.
Some values come like strings and can get it from Blender 3D interface, see:

and the
The set_mat function just load one object using: me =
Then put the material to object using append function.
The run function is used to show the result with how to make materials, create objects with this materials.
I run into Blender 3D - Console area:
YTHON INTERACTIVE CONSOLE 3.5.2 (default, Dec  1 2016, 20:58:16) [MSC v.1800 64 bit (AMD64)]

Command History:     Up/Down Arrow
Cursor:              Left/Right Home/End
Remove:              Backspace/Delete
Execute:             Enter
Autocomplete:        Ctrl-Space
Zoom:                Ctrl +/-, Ctrl-Wheel
Builtin Modules:     bpy,, bpy.ops, bpy.props, bpy.types, bpy.context, bpy.utils, bgl, blf, mathutils
Convenience Imports: from mathutils import *; from math import *
Convenience Variables: C = bpy.context, D =

>>> import catafest 
>>> dir(catafest)
['__builtins__', '__cached__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__loader__', '__name__', '__package__', '__spec__',
 'bpy', 'mat', 'run', 'set_mat']

This is the result of the script:

Wednesday, June 28, 2017

The Google API Client Library python module.

This python module named Google API Client Library for Python is a client library for accessing the Plus, Moderator, and many other Google APIs, according to the official link.
C:\Python27\Scripts>pip install --upgrade google-api-python-client
Collecting google-api-python-client
  Downloading google_api_python_client-1.6.2-py2.py3-none-any.whl (52kB)
    100% |################################| 61kB 426kB/s
Successfully installed google-api-python-client-1.6.2 ...
The example I used is this:
from oauth2client.client import flow_from_clientsecrets
import httplib2
import apiclient
from apiclient.discovery import build
from oauth2client.file import Storage
import webbrowser

def get_credentials():
    scope = ''
    flow = flow_from_clientsecrets(
        'client_id.json', scope,
    storage = Storage('credentials.dat')
    credentials = storage.get()

    if  not credentials or credentials.invalid:
        auth_uri = flow.step1_get_authorize_url()
        auth_code = raw_input('Enter the auth code: ')
        credentials = flow.step2_exchange(auth_code)
    return credentials

def get_service():
    """Returns an authorised blogger api service."""
    credentials = get_credentials()
    http = httplib2.Http()
    http = credentials.authorize(http)
    service ='blogger', 'v3', http=http)
    return service

if __name__ == '__main__':
    served = get_service()
    print dir(served.blogs)
    users = served.users()

    # Retrieve this user's profile information
    thisuser = users.get(userId='self').execute()
    print('This user\'s display name is: %s' % thisuser['displayName'].encode('utf-8'))

    blogs = served.blogs()

    # Retrieve the list of Blogs this user has write privileges on
    thisusersblogs = blogs.listByUser(userId='self').execute()
    for blog in thisusersblogs['items']:
        print('The blog named \'%s\' is at: %s' % (blog['name'], blog['url']))
The result of this script is this:
['__call__', '__class__', '__cmp__', '__delattr__', '__doc__', '__format__', '__func__', 
'__get__', '__getattribute__', '__hash__', '__init__', '__is_resource__', '__new__', 
'__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__self__', '__setattr__', '__sizeof__', 
'__str__', '__subclasshook__', 'im_class', 'im_func', 'im_self']
This user's display name is: Cătălin George Feștilă
The blog named 'python-catalin' is at:
The blog named 'graphics' is at:
The blog named 'About me and my life ...' is at:
The blog named 'pygame-catalin' is at:
About google settings then you need to have a google account to use Google’s API.
The first step for accessing the Google Developer’s Console.
Then navigate to the Developer Console’s projects page and create a new project for our application by clicking the Create project button and then enable blogger API.
Enter your projects name and hit create.
Click the Go to Credentials button with these settings like in the next image:

Download this credential information in JSON format, in this case, is the client_id.json file.
When you run for the first time this script you will see an open HTML page with your auth code.
The script example named will come with this message:
C:\Python27\lib\site-packages\oauth2client\ UserWarning: Cannot access credentials.dat: No such file or directory
Enter the auth code:
Put this auth code and allow the script using the open page and your google account using Allow button.
Now you can run the example.

The pyquery python module.

This tutorial is about pyquery python module and python 2.7.13 version.
First I used pip command to install it.
C:\Python27>cd Scripts

C:\Python27\Scripts>pip install pyquery
Collecting pyquery
  Downloading pyquery-1.2.17-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Requirement already satisfied: lxml>=2.1 in c:\python27\lib\site-packages (from pyquery)
Requirement already satisfied: cssselect>0.7.9 in c:\python27\lib\site-packages (from pyquery)
Installing collected packages: pyquery
Successfully installed pyquery-1.2.17
I try to install with pip and python 3.4 version but I got errors.
The development team tells us about this python module:
pyquery allows you to make jquery queries on xml documents. The API is as much as possible the similar to jquery. pyquery uses lxml for fast xml and html manipulation.
Let's try a simple example of this python module.
The base of this example is found links by HTML tag.
from pyquery import PyQuery
seeds = [
crawl_frontiers = []
def start_crawler():
    crawl_frontiers = crawler_seeds()
def crawler_seeds():
    frontiers = []
    for index, seed in enumerate(seeds):
        frontier = {index: read_links(seed)}
    return frontiers
def read_links(seed):
    crawler = PyQuery(seed)
    return [crawler(tag_a).attr("href") for tag_a in crawler("a")]
The read_links function takes links from seeds array.
To do that, I need to read the links and put in into another array crawl_frontiers.
The frontiers array is used just for crawler process.
Also, this simple example allows you to understand better the arrays.
You can read more about this python module here.

Saturday, June 17, 2017

Translate with goslate python module .

This python module comes with many features and this is the main reason I make this tutorial.
We can read about this python module here.
Google has updated its translation service recently with a ticket mechanism to prevent simple crawler program like goslate from accessing.
Though a more sophisticated crawler may still work technically, however it would have crossed the fine line between using the service and breaking the service. goslate will not be updated to break google’s ticket mechanism. Free lunch is over. Thanks for using.

Let's install this python module with python 2.7 version and pip:

C:\Python27>cd Scripts

C:\Python27\Scripts>pip install goslate
Collecting goslate
  Downloading goslate-1.5.1.tar.gz
Requirement already satisfied: futures in c:\python27\lib\site-packages (from goslate)
Installing collected packages: goslate
  Running install for goslate ... done
Successfully installed goslate-1.5.1
Let's test a simple example from English to Romanian:
Python 2.7.13 (v2.7.13:a06454b1afa1, Dec 17 2016, 20:42:59) [MSC v.1500 32 bit (Intel)] on win32
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import goslate
>>> gs = goslate.Goslate()
>>> print(gs.translate('I\'m not here','ro'))
Eu nu sunt aici
Using detail dictionary explanation for a single word/phrase:
>>> gs.lookup_dictionary('internet', 'ro')
[[[u'Internet', u'internet', None, None, 2]], [[u'noun', [u'Internet'], [[u'Internet', 
[u'Internet'], None, 0.43686765]], u'Internet', 1]], u'en', None, None, None, 0.73151749,
 None, [[u'en'], None, [0.73151749], [u'en']]]
In my opinion, I have no idea what they might use, perhaps in chat applications, specific translations, and text detection.

Friday, June 16, 2017

Python Qt4 - part 002.

This tutorial covers only part of the practice of using G.U.I. (graphical user interface) elements in PyQt4.
First of all, I will start with the theory and then I will simply exemplify how these work.
There are three basic elements called: Event, Signal, and Slot.
Since all GUI applications are driven by events, we will have several elements interconnected with signals and slots.
What do we need to know?
Events are generated mainly by the user of an application into the event processing system.
The event processing system in PyQt4 is built with the signal and slot mechanism.
The event processing system is an event model with three participants:
  • event source 
  • event object 
  • event target 
Signals and slots are used for communication between objects.
A signal is emitted when something of potential interest happens.
If a signal is connected to a slot then the slot is called when the signal is emitted.
Rules of signals and slots:
  • A signal may be connected to many slots.
  • A signal may also be connected to another signal.
  • Signal arguments may be any Python type.
  • A slot may be connected to many signals.
  • Connections may be direct (ie. synchronous) or queued (ie. asynchronous).
  • Connections may be made across threads.
  • Signals may be disconnected.
A signal (specifically an unbound signal) is an attribute of a class that is a subclass of QObject.
Signals are connected to slots using the connect() method of a bound signal.
Signals are disconnected from slots using the disconnect() method of a bound signal.
Signals are emitted from using the emit() method of a bound signal.
Example of a signal used into the myclassapp PyQt4 application:
I create a new signal called closeApp.
closeApp = QtCore.pyqtSignal()
This signal is emitted during a mouse press event.
def mousePressEvent(self, event):
The signal is connected to the close() slot of the QtGui.QMainWindow.
I did not show the entire example here because the reason was to show the direct connection between the signal, the event and the slot.
The events are functions or methods are executed in response to user’s actions like clicking on a button, selecting an item from a collection or a mouse click etc.
Another simple example with o application with two buttons:
import sys
from PyQt4.QtCore import *
from PyQt4.QtGui import *

def window():
   app = QApplication(sys.argv)
   win = QDialog()
   mybutton1= QPushButton(win)

   mybutton2= QPushButton(win)

   win.setWindowTitle("PyQt Event Signal Slot")

def mybutton1_clicked():
   print "Button 1 clicked"

def mybutton2_clicked():
   print "Button 2 clicked"

if __name__ == '__main__':
The result of clicking on these buttons is something like that:
Button 2 clicked
Button 2 clicked
Button 1 clicked
Button 1 clicked
Button 1 clicked
Button 2 clicked
Button 1 clicked
Button 2 clicked
All widgets used to build the G.U.I. (graphical user interface) act as the source of such events, see the mybutton1 source code part.
Now about this part of the source code, I just used to exemplify how the signals are connected to the slots:
So each PyQt widget (which is derived from QObject class) is designed to emit a signal in response to one or more events.
The signal on its own does not perform any action. Instead, it is connected to a slot. The slot can be any callable Python function.
And this part of the source code is exemplified with mybutton2.
Signals are complex due to their use (how they are used).
More theory about the signals.
To send a signal across threads we have to use the Qt.QueuedConnection parameter.
There is also a special form of a PyQt4 signal known as a short-circuit signal.
The short-circuit signals implicitly declare each argument as being of type PyQt_PyObject.
Short-circuit signals do not have a list of arguments or the surrounding parentheses.
Short-circuit signals may only be connected to slots that have been implemented in Python.
They cannot be connected to Qt slots or the Python callables that wrap Qt slots.
The older style of connecting signals and slots will continue to be supported throughout the life of PyQt4.

Saturday, June 10, 2017

Python Qt4 - part 001.

Today I started with PyQt4 and python version :
Python 2.7.13 (v2.7.13:a06454b1afa1, Dec 17 2016, 20:42:59) [MSC v.1500 32 bit (Intel)] on win32
To install PyQt4 I used this link to take the executable named: PyQt4-4.11.4-gpl-Py2.7-Qt4.8.7-x32.exe.
The name of this executable shows us: can be used with python 2.7.x versions and come with Qt4.8.7 for our 32-bit python.
I start with a default Example class to make a calculator interface with PyQt4.
This is my example:
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import sys
from PyQt4 import QtGui

Qt.Gui calculator example

class Example(QtGui.QWidget):
    def __init__(self):
        super(Example, self).__init__()
    def initUI(self):
 title = QtGui.QLabel('Title')
        titleEdit = QtGui.QLineEdit()
        grid = QtGui.QGridLayout()

 grid.addWidget(title, 0, 0)


        names = ['Cls', 'Bck', 'OFF',
                 '/', '.', '7', '8',
                '9', '*', 'SQR', '3',
                 '4', '5', '-', '=',
                '0', '1', '2', '+']
        positions = [(i,j) for i in range(1,5) for j in range(0,5)]
        for position, name in zip(positions, names):
            if name == '':
            button = QtGui.QPushButton(name)
            grid.addWidget(button, *position)
        self.move(300, 250)
def main():
    app = QtGui.QApplication(sys.argv)
    ex = Example()

if __name__ == '__main__':
The example is simple.
First, you need a QGridLayout - this makes a matrix.
I used labels, line edit and buttons all from QtGui: QLabel, QLineEdit and QPushButton.
First into this matrix - named grid is Title and edit area named titleEdit.
This two is added to the grid - matrix with addWidget.
The next step is to put all the buttons into one array.
This array will be added to the grid matrix with a for a loop.
To make this add from array to matrix I used the zip function.
The zip function makes an iterator that aggregates elements from each of the iterable.
Also, I set the title to Calculator with setWindowTitle.
I have not implemented the part of the events and the calculation.
The main function will start the interface by using the QApplication.
The goal of this tutorial was the realization of the graphical interface with PyQt4.
This is the result of my example:

Sunday, June 4, 2017

The SpeechRecognition python module - part 001.

First, you need to install the SpeechRecognition python module for Windows 10:
C:\Python27>cd Scripts
C:\Python27\Scripts>pip install --upgrade  --trusted-host  SpeechRecognition
Collecting SpeechRecognition
  Downloading SpeechRecognition-3.6.5-py2.py3-none-any.whl (31.8MB)
    100% |################################| 31.8MB 4.9MB/s
Installing collected packages: SpeechRecognition
  Found existing installation: SpeechRecognition 3.5.0
    Uninstalling SpeechRecognition-3.5.0:
      Successfully uninstalled SpeechRecognition-3.5.0
Successfully installed SpeechRecognition-3.6.5
The next step is the PyAudio python module:
C:\Python27\Scripts>pip install --upgrade  --trusted-host  PyAudio
Collecting PyAudio
  Downloading PyAudio-0.2.11-cp27-cp27m-win32.whl (49kB)
    100% |################################| 51kB 258kB/s
Installing collected packages: PyAudio
  Found existing installation: PyAudio 0.2.9
    Uninstalling PyAudio-0.2.9:
      Successfully uninstalled PyAudio-0.2.9
Successfully installed PyAudio-0.2.11
Also, this python module can be installed under python version 3.4.1:
C:\Python34\Scripts>pip install SpeechRecognition
Downloading/unpacking SpeechRecognition
Installing collected packages: SpeechRecognition
Successfully installed SpeechRecognition
Cleaning up...
The problem with Python 3.4.x version is PyAudio python module installation.
Anyway, I used the python 2.7.13 version to test this module with a simple python script:
import speech_recognition as sr
import os
print "HELP: Set your microphone hardware on and try this script"
def active_listen():
    r = sr.Recognizer()
    with sr.Microphone() as src:
        audio = r.listen(src)
    msg = ''
        msg = r.recognize_google(audio)
        print (msg.lower())
    except sr.UnknownValueError:
        print("Google Speech Recognition could not understand audio")
    except sr.RequestError as e:
        print("Could not request results from Google STT; {0}".format(e))
        print("Unknown exception occurred!")
        return msg.lower()
Just start your microphone hardware on and run the script.
Working well for me this test.

The development with python-instagram .

The python-instagram python module is a Python 2/3 client for the Instagram REST and Search APIs.
This python module requires httplib2, simplejson and six.
Instagram API uses the OAuth2 protocol for authentication, see docs.
C:\Python27\Scripts>pip install --upgrade  --trusted-host  
Collecting python-instagram
  Downloading python-instagram-1.3.2.tar.gz
Collecting simplejson (from python-instagram)
  Downloading simplejson-3.10.0-cp27-cp27m-win32.whl (66kB)
    100% |################################| 71kB 1.1MB/s
Requirement already up-to-date: httplib2 in c:\python27\lib\site-packages 
(from python-instagram)
Requirement already up-to-date: six in c:\python27\lib\site-packages 
(from python-instagram)
Building wheels for collected packages: python-instagram
  Running bdist_wheel for python-instagram ... done
Installing collected packages: simplejson, python-instagram
Successfully installed python-instagram-1.3.2 simplejson-3.10.0
Now about this python module:
Python 2.7.13 (v2.7.13:a06454b1afa1, Dec 17 2016, 20:42:59) [MSC v.1500 32 bit (Intel)] on win32
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> from instagram.client import InstagramAPI
>>> dir(InstagramAPI)
['__class__', '__delattr__', '__dict__', '__doc__', '__format__', '__getattribute__', '__hash__',
 '__init__', '__module__', '__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__setattr__', 
'__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', '__weakref__', '_make_relationship_shortcut', 
'_make_subscription_action', 'access_token_field', 'access_token_url', 'api_name', 
'approve_user_request', 'authorize_url', 'base_path', 'block_user', 'change_user_relationship',
 'create_media_comment', 'create_subscription', 'delete_comment', 'delete_subscriptions',
 'exchange_code_for_access_token', 'exchange_user_id_for_access_token', 
'exchange_xauth_login_for_access_token', 'follow_user', 'geography_recent_media', 
'get_authorize_login_url', 'get_authorize_url', 'host', 'ignore_user_request', 'like_media',
 'list_subscriptions', 'location', 'location_recent_media', 'location_search', 'media', 
'media_comments', 'media_likes', 'media_popular', 'media_search', 'media_shortcode', 'protocol',
 'redirect_uri', 'tag', 'tag_recent_media', 'tag_search', 'unblock_user', 'unfollow_user', 
'unlike_media', 'user', 'user_followed_by', 'user_follows', 'user_incoming_requests', 
'user_liked_media', 'user_media_feed', 'user_recent_media', 'user_relationship', 'user_search',
 'x_ratelimit', 'x_ratelimit_remaining']
If you have an Instagram account then just log in into instagram developer website.
Then fill the issue about your website the phone number and what do you want to build for your application check your agreement with Instagram.
Now you need to use Register Your Application and finally on Register a New Client.
About Register Your Application you need to fill them with data for your application ( basic info: Description, Company Name, Website URL, Contact email).
Select the tab Security and disable the Disable implicit OAuth.

About the token authorizations:

Is given to you with this words:

basic – to read a user’s profile info and media

or needs additional permission:

public_content – to read any public profile info and media on a user’s behalf
follower_list – to read the list of followers and followed-by users
comments – to post and delete comments on a user’s behalf
relationships – to follow and unfollow accounts on a user’s behalf
likes – to like and unlike media on a user’s behalf
The next step is to get access token then you need to add http://localhost link into Security tag from Manage Client.
Use this URL to get the access token by pasting it into your web browser.[CLIENT_ID_HERE]&redirect_uri=http://localhost&response_type=token&scope=public_content
Into the browser, you will see one page with one button for Authorizing access.
Press this button and into your browser address bar you will get the access token like:
A simple python script to test it.
from time import sleep
from instagram.client import InstagramAPI

redirect_uri= "http://xxxxx"

api = InstagramAPI(client_id=client_id, client_secret=client_secret)
print dir(api)
print api.api_name
To deal with python and Instagram is not very easy for me.
The main reason comes from errors and the Instagram API development way.
Some simple tasks are very hard to do.